According to media reports, the frozen samples are set to be destroyed this summer after eight years in storage, and IOC medical commission chairman Arne Ljungqvist told The Associated Press that the Olympic body is likely to retest some for substances that can now be detected - including insulin and human growth hormone.
The International Olympic Committee has previously retested samples from the 2006 Winter Games in Turin and 2008 Summer Games in Beijing.
The Turin samples came back negative, while the Beijing retests led to five athletes being caught for use of CERA, an advanced version of the blood-boosting drug EPO.
Doping samples from each Olympics are stored for eight years to allow for them to be re-analysed once new testing methods are validated.
The move to retest comes after the World Anti-Doping Agency sent a letter to the IOC requesting that the samples be checked again based on the emergence of new testing methods since 2004.
The Athens Games produced a record 26 doping cases, more than double the previous Olympic high of 12 at Los Angeles in 1984. Six medalists, including two gold winners, were caught in Athens from among 3,600 tests.
One substance that wasn't tested for in Athens but can now be detected is insulin, which improves metabolism. A test for human growth hormone, or HGH, was first introduced at the Athens Olympics, but no athletes were caught for the substance at the time. The HGH test has since been improved and could be carried out again retroactively.
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